# Symbolic Logic: An Accessible Introduction to Serious Mathematical Logic

In recent times, I have found myself expanding a set of notes into a full-fledged logic textbook. This page includes parts corresponding to courses in sentential logic (Phil 200), and then the first and second volumes of the text (for Phil 300 and then Phil 400), along with a complete version of the text, all in the PDF format. *This is work in progress, and so subject to change*. I am happy for anyone to use this material -- I request only that you forward me comments, positive or otherwise. (Winter 2019.)

**From the Preface:** There is, I think, a gap between what many students learn in their ﬁrst course in formal logic, and what they are expected to know for their second. While courses in mathematical logic with metalogical components often cast only the barest glance at mathematical induction or even the very idea of reasoning from deﬁnitions, a ﬁrst course may also leave these untreated, and fail explicitly to lay down the deﬁnitions upon which the second course is based. The aim of this text is to integrate material from these courses and, in particular, to make serious mathematical logic accessible to students I teach. The ﬁrst parts introduce classical symbolic logic as appropriate for beginning students; the last parts build to Gödel’s completeness and ıncompleteness results. A distinctive feature of the last section is a complete development of Gödel’s second ıncompleteness theorem. complete preface to the textbook.

*Sentential Logic* (SL): from the first parts of chapters 1 - 7 -- sufficent for Phil 200

*Symbolic Logic: Volume I*: all of chapters 1 - 8 -- sufficient for Phil 300

*Symbolic Logic: Volume II: *all of chapters 9 - 14 -- sufficient for Phil 400/metalogic and 400/incompleteness

*Symbolic Logic: *complete text

Symbolic Logic (for single sided)

Symbolic Logic (for two sided)

most recent version (the most up-to-date file)

*Some other useful files:*

Trees for sentential formulas: Symbolyzer instructions for Symbolizer

Ruby recursive program files: running Ruby recursive1

Turing machine files: running the simulator state.rb turing_machine.rb suc.rb blank.rbIf you are interested in LaTeX: getting started with LaTeX test.tex preamble.tex.